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Problems Essay 18



Great inventions take place only by the efforts of some great minds. It is not in the capacity of all to think and invent new things. Once a new invention comes to light, it seems to solve a lot of problems. Along with solving problems, it helps in further study and higher inventions. It, therefore, becomes a stepping stone for further development.




problems essay 18



There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research.


For example, members of Gen Z are more likely than older generations to look to government to solve problems, rather than businesses and individuals. Fully seven-in-ten Gen Zers say the government should do more to solve problems, while 29% say government is doing too many things better left to businesses and individuals. A somewhat smaller share of Millennials (64%) say government should do more to solve problems, and this view is even less prevalent among older generations (53% of Gen Xers, 49% of Boomers and 39% of Silents).


Hi--I am using the workshop tool for the first time. Under each essay I have requested that the essay be published and I have then closed the workshop, but students are still unable to access each other's essays--we get a 'Sorry, the requested file could not be found' error when clicking on the link to go to the essay.


Access to computers has increased significantly over recent decades, and the number of children playing games on computers has increased too. This essay will consider the positive and negative impacts of this and discuss ways to avoid the potential negative effects.


When I wrote the first book with the same name some people criticized me saying that I had pointed out what was wrong with India but not suggested how the problems could be tackled. This was not entirely right as I had outlined not only issues but also based on my training as a social innovator ways and means sketchily of meeting them. However this time, I plan to make a more conscious attempt at giving solutions for what it is worth. While dealing with the Dalit issue and attendant ones regarding ethne or ethnicities or minorities or tribals or indigenous peoples that are endangered for whatever reasons, the giving of solutions can only come after I take into consideration that Dalits may say his solutions do not matter as he is not one and others may say his do not matter as he is too pro Dalit for our liking but this should not hinder me as a thinker who has much in common with the Dalits being a minority representative from carrying out to its logical conclusion what seems to be my exercise in analysis by bringing about also as it fruit the necessary empowering points that I feel will bring about a change to the solution.


Reviewed by: The Body/Body Problem: Selected Essays Robert Pepperell The Body/Body Problem: Selected Essays by Arthur C. Danto. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A., 2001. 246 pp. Paper. ISBN: 0-520-22908-8. Anyone acquiring this book solely on the basis of Arthur Danto's reputation as an art critic might be disappointed. The testimonials on the back of this edition are somewhat misleading in emphasizing his track record as an art historian, since there is little, if any, specifically aesthetic theory in this collection of philosophical essays, spanning some 30 years. With a Library of Congress data classification of "Representation (Philosophy)," the question of how ideas about the world are held in the mind is clearly one of Danto's central preoccupations here, along with history, science and the nature of bodily action. The matter of art, therefore, is dealt with more obliquely through general problems of representation, although Danto often uses examples from art history to illustrate more philosophical points.


The 12 essays collected here cover an impressive range of subjects, some of little more than local concern to the field of academic philosophy, while others push at the very bounds of our self-knowledge. Within the confines of this review, it would not be possible to do any more than indicate some recurrent themes before considering what are some of its most significant ideas.


We are immediately confronted with problems in the first essay, "Representational Properties and Mind/Body Identity," in which Danto critiques the implausibility of the Materialist position that thoughts (mental representations) are identical with "brain-states." This quickly becomes a discussion on the categorization of certain properties of representations in terms of their relation to reality. Here, art becomes an illustrative case study in defining the connection between an object and its representation that, for Danto, is analogous to the connection between the brain and thought. He concludes that the implausibility of Materialism does not necessarily invalidate it, implying that dualism, by contrast, is impotent: "If a bit of mere paint can be of the Passion of the Lord, why on earth cannot a state be of our brain?" (p. 30).


Danto tackles wider problems of representation in several other essays, arguing consistently that both history and science, and especially the history of science, are representative as much as explanatory. In "History and Representation," he warns against...


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